Germany has an extensive network of pharmacies (Apotheken), with branches on just about every second corner in town, easily recognized by a big red "A or a green cross". The state health insurance generally provides reimbursement for prescription generic drugs, though with a co-payment, the scale of which depends on the cost of the medication. The public system is trying to reduce the immense cost of pharmaceuticals and has forced discounts from the large drug companies. The pharmacy must search for the lowest possible price for the generic medication when you present a prescription from the registered doctor as a public patient.
If you are privately insured, brand-name medication will be covered, as long as you have a prescription. You will have to pay the full cost of the prescription medicine immediately and then submit the receipts to your insurer for reimbursement. However, do not expect to be reimbursed by either the government or private health insurance for over-the-counter remedies.